How does thyroid condition happen? Can Thyroid nutritionally controlled?
Thyroid diseases occur when, thyroid (a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your
neck) does not produce the right amount of thyroid hormone. These hormones produces by thyroid glands regulate the body’s metabolic rate, controls heart, muscles, brain development, bone maintenance and digestive functions. The function of this gland depends on the availability of iodine from the diet. Cells in thyroid glands, that produce thyroid hormones are specialized in absorbing the nutrient from blood and incorporates in the thyroid hormone.
The signal for production of these thyroid hormones is received from a gland located at the
bottom of our brain called as “Pituitary gland”. Pituitary glad send out a hormone called
“thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)” which stimulated the thyroid gland or the production
og thyroid hormones. The TSH is produced based on the body’s need for thyroid hormone
to maintain the balance in metabolic process.
Thyroid gland produces two types of hormones, Thyroxine (T4), and Triiodothyronine (T3).
T4 is an inactive prohormone, and T3 is a highly active hormone. Thyroid gland produces
only 20% of T3, and the remaining 80% of the hormones are T$, which then gets activated
to T3 in liver or kidney tissues.
In normal cases, thyroid gland produces the exact number of hormones that are needed by
the body to maintain the balance. However, certain disorders associated with thyroid glands
may disturb the hormone production. In this case, thyroid gland may produce either low
levels of thyroid hormones called hypothyroidism, or too much of thyroid hormones called
hyperthyroidism. These changes may result in your body using energy slower or faster than
Hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid may occur because the pituitary gland, the
hypothalamus or the thyroid itself is not working properly, it could be due to the
autoimmune destruction in which our own immune cells attacks the cells in thyroid gland,
or due to the iodine deficiency.
Symptoms of an underactive thyroid include:
more frequent and stronger menstrual periods
extremely dry skin
goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid may occurs when the thyroid gland produces more
thyroid hormone than the body actually needs. Overactive thyroid may occur if the
hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or the thyroid itself is not working properly, it can also
be caused due to thyroiditis -an inflammation of the thyroid gland. This can lower the
number of hormones produced. Hyperthyroidism in not very common.
Symptoms of an overactive thyroid include:
infrequent menstrual periods
rapid heart rate
intolerance to heat
irregular menstrual flow
frequent bowel movements
goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland
In contrast to iodine deficiency, excessive iodine intake also may have negative effects on
your thyroid. Excessive intake of iodine is not possible through natural foods, as it is present
in a very low amount. However, it is found in large doses in supplements, drugs and some
cough syrups. This may lead to the thyroids producing either too much or too little hormone
in some individuals.
Role of nutrition for Thyroid:
As per the best nutritionist in Bangalore, maintaining an ideal weight becomes very difficult with the thyroid conditions. As with the
hypothyroidism, the BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is reduced and it leads to weight gain, and
with Hyperthyroidism, the increase in BMR decreases the bodyweight than desirable.
Thus balancing the diet plan to provide enough calories to maintain in ideal body weight is
important to prevent any other associated conditions. Nutrition plan can help in
alleviating the symptoms like constipation, irregular menstruation, overweight or
underweight, cholesterol levels, etc.,
Many nutritional factors play a role in optimal thyroid function. However, both nutrient
deficiencies and excesses can trigger symptoms. Working in collaboration with a dietitian is
ideal to determine nutritional status for your optimal thyroid health.
• Iodine: Iodine is a crucial nutrient in the body and essential to thyroid function; thyroid
hormones are comprised of iodine. the daily and constant intake of this micronutrient is
important. Too much iodine at once is counter-productive and causes your thyroid to
produce less hormones. iodine deficiency is the main cause worldwide.
Both iodine deficiency and excess have significant risks; therefore, supplementation(to be
taken only if prescribed by an expert) should be approached with caution.
Selenium: Thyroid glant has the highest selenium concentration in our body and it’s been
shown to be a necessary component of enzymes integral to thyroid function. It is an
essential trace mineral and has also been shown to have a profound effect over the immune
system, cognitive function, fertility in both women and men, and mortality rate.
Cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage , cauliflower, and broccoli naturally contains a
compound called goitrin. Goitrin can interfere with the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
However, this is usually a concern only when combined with an iodine deficiency. Heating
cruciferous vegetables denatures most of this potential goitrogenic effect.
Soy is another potential goitrogen. The isoflavones in soy can reduce the thyroid hormone
synthesis, but according to studies, consuming soy doesn’t cause hypothyroidism in people
with adequate iodine stores.